Investigating the correlation between vitamin D and metabolic syndrome
Habous, M1; Giona, S2; Abdelrahman, Z1; Nassar, M1; Tealab, A1; Muir, G3; Binsaleh, S4
1: Elaj Medical Centers, Saudi Arabia; 2: King’s College Hospital,London,UK; 3: King's College Hospital,London,UK; 4: King Said university,Riyadh,Saudi Arabia
Introduction: Vitamin D insufficiency(VDI) is very common in the United States and worldwide. Several recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a strong association between VDI and risk of cardio vascular disease(CVD), risk of diabetes(DM) and metabolic syndrome(MS). Because the vitamin D receptor is present in multiple tissues, there has been interest in evaluating other potential functions of vitamin D, particularly, in vascular system.
Objectives: To investigate if there are correlations of VDI with penile hemodynamics, Obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension(HTN) and DM.
Methods: we retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who presented to our Andrology clinic in the last two years. The data included vitamin D levels, age, body mass index(BMI), comorbidities, peak systolic velocity(PSV) and end diastolic velocity(EDV) in penile Doppler ultrasound(PDU). We excluded patients with history of vitamin D therapy and patients with incomplete data from the study. All included patients live in same region, share same habits for clothing and exposure to sun. Patients were stratified according to vitamin D levels into 3 groups: group A:£ 10 ng/ml(deficiency), group B: 10 – 20 ng/ml(insufficiency) and group C: ³ 20 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was done.
Results:556 patients were included in this analysis. The mean age was 46(21-83), and the mean BMI was 29.56(16-50).43.7% were diabetic and 21.7% were hypertensive. The mean vitamin D value was 18.8(4-73) ng/ml, with 98 patients in groupA,267 in group B and 191 in group C. There was a weak correlation between vitamin D levels and PSV although it wasn’t statistically significant(p-value=0.06).Vitamin D levels were not correlated with EDV, Testosterone, BMI, or HgA1c.They were correlated well with high density lipoprotein (HDL, p-value = 0.0008),and age(p-value = 0.04),while they were inversely correlated with Cholesterol(p-value =0.007) and Triglycerides (p-value = 0.006).When comparing vitamin D levels in hypertensive versus non-hypertensive patients, there is a slight statistical difference between the two groups Mean Levels (20.8 HTN+ vs 18.2 HTN-) with p = 0.017. However, the two groups are radically different in numbers 121 vs 434 so part of the result could be due to that. When doing same analysis for diabetics versus non-diabetics, there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (p-value = 0.106).
Conclusion: Vitamin D levels seem to be correlated with age and serum lipids. They might be correlated to HTN and PSV in ED patients. These results need to be confirmed in further studies.
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