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Cyber pornography use inventory-9: factor structure and psychometric properties in the Portuguese population

Cardoso, J1; Ramos, C1; Almeida, T1; Gomes, A1; Fernandes, A1; Ribeiro, R1

1: Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz, Portugal

Objective: Online pornography is characterized by easy and anonymous accessibility, as well as free or low cost. The impact of pornography depends on the type of content consumed, the frequency of exposure, and the personal and contextual characteristics of users. Several, mainly negative, effects have been reported, related to exposure to pornography, including more permissive sexual norms, inappropriate attitudes towards gender roles, unrealistic expectations, decreased sexual interest in the partner, lower relational and sexual satisfaction, sexual addiction, and devaluation or legitimation of sexual violence. Consistent with the greater availability of sexually explicit material on the Internet, there is a need to investigate the problematic pornography use. The Cyber Pornography Use Inventory-9 (CPUI-9) is a frequently used measure to assess patterns of online pornography use. The main objective of the current study was to validate and assess the psychometric properties of CPUI-9 in the Portuguese population.

Material and Method: The study design is descriptive, observational and cross-sectional with a non-probabilistic and convenience sample. 217 participants (18-30 years old) completed the CPUI-9 online, which comprises 9 items divided into 3 dimensions: Perceived Compulsivity, Access Efforts and Emotional Distress. This measure was translated to Portuguese by three researchers and back to English by two researchers.

Results: Results from an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) show a factor structure composed by three factors: Perceived Compulsivity (4 items); Access Efforts (2 items) and Emotional Distress (3 items), which is different from the original factor structure. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis shows that the thee-factor model resulting from EFA presents better model fit indices (Chi-squared (23) = 59.027, GFI = .942, CFI = .950, NFI = .923; RMSEA = .085 [.059- .112]), when comparing with the original factor structure. This CPUI-9 factor structure has good psychometric properties, namely reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = .787, for total scale), composite reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of items.

Conclusions: The 3-factor structure presents a better adjustment to the data, while maintaining the same three dimensions identified by the authors of the original scale, but with different composition of items. The good psychometric properties of the scale validate its use for future studies in the Portuguese population.


Work supported by industry: no.

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